Libraries began to form with books brought in the bags of humanists and scholars since the sixteenth century. From 1540, in Tiripitio, and in 1545 in Tacambaro, Fray Martín Alonso installed libraries.
When Vasco de Quiroga died in 1565, he left 626 books, maps and geographical maps. In addition, each school and convent formed its own library. The one of the school of Jesuits, in San Pedro and San Pablo was one of the greatest; Its elaborate index in 1769 was composed of 671 pages. There were copies in the Fathers' room: in the Father Cadalso's 5,968 were found and in the ministry of the Father 1,824.
There were also private libraries of a very rich quantity and quality, such as that of the studied Carlos de Siguenza and Gongora, where there were manuscripts and books about America, Sister Juan Ines de la Cruz, which had more than 4,000 volumes Sor Juana was forced to sell her library in 1690 to help the people damaged by the plague and famine that year).
The present Palafoxian library of Puebla was formed from the personal heap of Bishop Palafox, which was estimated at 6,000 copies. Father Pichardo also had a similar amount of volumes. In 1789, the canons Don Luis and Don Cayeatano Torres, opened the Turriana library, next to the cathedral of Mexico, had a capacity of 8,000 copies and was the first public library in the country.