Benito Juárez took possession of the national government in Guanajuato and quickly established the federal powers in Veracruz, under the protection of the governor Manuel Gutierrez Zamora. Then in January 1861, when the constitutional army entered the capital triumphantly, Juarez settled there with his cabinet.
But in 1863, when the city was ruled by conservatives, it was forced to withdraw and take refuge in the north until it reached far to New York, which for two years was the seat of the legitimate government. During the phase of Emperor Maximilian (Emperor sent by France to govern Mexico), when the empire was almost defeated since the Liberals dominated the whole country except the capital, Queretaro, Puebla and Veracruz. Juarez established the capital in Zacatecas, a city that had been recovered by General Escobedo.