Metropolis religious of Mexico, shone with an incomparable light two millennia ago. But his fall would be as brutal as his ascension. The city that attracted its sanctuaries to the immense crowds, was suddenly abandoned. Although today, its end is a mystery as its birth was once. According to mythology, the gods built their pyramids, at one time they created the Sun and the Moon, the origin of the world.
In the great plain of the high plateau of the Valley of Mexico, an immense city rose, the most important of the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican settlements: Tollan Teotihuacán "where men become gods." This is what the Aztecs called him respectfully, who like us only knew their ruins. Its great extension - more than 30 square kilometers -, what remains of its monuments, its portions, its beauty, its layout in space, confirmed it as the capital of the empire, its name, as a mythical place.
From the top of the Pyramid of the Sun, the ruins of Teotihuacan seem to extend to the borders of the horizon. Although three-quarters buried, the City of the Gods reveals the basic structures of the sacred city, conceived and organized according to the strict laws of astronomical calculations.
Who founded, built and inhabited Teotihuacan? What kind of precedents did a civilization suddenly emerge on a high plateau populated with peasant tribes, who rebelled unexpectedly, singular and superior in their ideas and achievements, and impregnated how many civilizations they followed? The answers to these questions are only contradictory hypotheses. It is no longer enough, as in the past, to speak of a miracle that happened out of nowhere.
First, the whole geographical situation is favorable to the expansion of the city. Teotihuacán occupied an excellent strategic position on the route that naturally links the valleys of Mexico City and Puebla, and which reached the low and tropical lowlands of the Gulfo coast of Mexico, in the present state of Veracruz. Its volcanic surroundings provided a great quantity of obsidian, a raw material of capital importance in the production of sculpted products, instruments and all kinds of utensils. Finally, the valley dominated in alluvium, very fertile with relative abundance of water. The area was populated by indigenous peasants, probably the Otomi, who lived in adobe huts, creating populations of one hundred to three hundred people, perhaps even more.
Certainly, it was near one of those cities that the founders of Teotihuacán probably started building the pyramid of the Sun, building what would be the most impressive of ceremonial centers in ancient Mexico. In this way, they implanted in a submerged zone of the high plateau, a great center of attraction, essentially religious, and with the authority of a theocratic government supported by a group of wisdom, something that possibly contributed to improve agriculture, especially With the systematic practice of irrigation of the earth.
As for civilization, whose degree of perfection surprises everyone, since from its earliest beginnings, we can not say that it comes from nothing, since before that culture another had developed and was just as enigmatic: The Olmecs Were masterful sculptors with colossal heads or small figures in the most beautiful and resistant jades, the Olmecs were also builders. The ruins of La Venta, with hills aligned in connection with their square squares, with the layout of the ceremonial area on a central axis oriented in the north-south direction, present the fundamental scheme of the future of Mesoamerican cities.